Neuroimaging Techniques for the Investigation of Emotional-Cognitive Interactions The brain regions associated with cognitive-emotional interactions can be studied with different functional neuroimaging techniques fMRI, PET, and fNIRS to examine hemodynamic responses indirect measurement. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a widely used functional neuroimaging tool for mapping of brain activation as it provides a high spatial resolution a few millimeters.
Positron Emission Tomography PET Positron emission tomography is another functional neuroimaging tool that maps CNS physiology and neural activation by measuring glucose metabolism or regional cerebral blood flow rCBF. Electroencephalography EEG Electroencephalography obtains high temporal resolution in milliseconds, portable, less expensive, and non-invasive techniques by attaching scalp electrodes to record brain electrical activity.
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy fNIRS Functional near-infrared spectroscopy is an emerging and relatively low-cost imaging technique that is also portable and non-invasive. Factors Affecting the Effect of Emotion on Learning and Memory The preceding section described neuroimaging techniques used to examine brain responses to emotional stimuli during WM processing leading to LTM. Individual Differences A number of studies have reported numerous influences in addition to a range of individual differences in emotional processing.
Age-Related Differences Studies have also shown that older adults are associated with the greater familiarity with psychological stress and emotional experiences, thus causing positivity biases in emotional processing and better emotional control than in younger adults Urry and Gross, ; Allard and Kensinger, Emotional Stimulus Selection The selection of emotional stimuli for experimental studies is generally divided into two streams: 1 discrete emotional, and 2 dimensional emotions of valence, arousal, dominance and familiarity Russell, ; Barrett, Self-assessment Techniques There are numerous self-assessment techniques used to measure individual emotional states Bradley and Lang, Neurocognitive Research Design The neuroscience of cognition and emotion requires appropriate task designs to accomplish specific study objectives Amin and Malik, Concluding Remarks, Open Questions, and Future Directions Substantial evidence has established that emotional events are remembered more clearly, accurately and for longer periods of time than are neutral events.
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Author Contributions CMT drafted this manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory
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